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Title: Breast Cancer, learn all about it! by Nguang Nguek-Fluek

Author: Nguek-Fluek Nguang

Our bodies are made of small structures called cells, which can  only be seen through a microscope. Cells from tissues
and organs, such as liver, brain, kidneys or lungs, each have a different function. Normally, our cells divide and multiply by
themselves, ensuring the growth and repairing of body tissues. A disease can interfere with this normal cycle in a variety of


Sometimes there is an abnormal cell growth, causing a tumour or a swelling. Tumours that do not extend to other areas are called
benign. Once they are treated, sometimes through surgery, they do not cause other problems.

Cancers are malignant tumours that begin in a similar way to benign tumours, but they spread to other organs and tissues. The
area where malignant tumours are originated is called primary cancer. The further spread is known as secondary cancer or

How Cancer Develops

Cancer starts developing from a single cell. A cell can turn cancerous in several ways: ? It starts to divide and doesn't
have a safety catch to end the dividing process so it continues indefinitely. ? It becomes unable to identify damage to DNA or
repair that damage, so it carries on living with it. ? It becomes unable to perceive neighbouring cells and interact with
them the normal way.

The proteins that help control the dividing process sometimes become dysfunctional. This may lead to cells starting to behave
atypically an and multiply incontrollable. When they are multiplying too much, they can form a lump, which is
characteristic too many types of cancer, including breast cancer.

How Cancer Spreads

There are two transport systems that go through our body: the blood system and the lymphatic system. The lymph usually helps
the body to fight infections. Breast cancer can sometimes spread to lymph nodes. Actually, the way these lymph nodes evolve is a
good indicator for whether the cancer is likely to return or not. Breast cancer cells break away from the lump and move to
surrounding tissues. Eventually, they are carried by the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other body parts. There they
can develop into new tumors, which are called "secondaries" or "metastases".

Secondary Breast Cancer

Secondary cancer is the stage when breast cancer cells have moved to other body parts also and formed new tumors. It is also
called metastasis. In breast cancer, the spread commonly occurs to liver, bones or lungs. The primary cancer is located in the
breast. The secondary cancer is breast cancer as well, but it has evolved to invading other parts of the body and forming
tumors there. When this happens, the cancer can no longer be cure. However, with good medication, it can be controlled for a
long period of time.

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